Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits, Part 1

Adapt germanium circuits for today's silicon transistors. Get legacy equipment working again. Easy, rewarding process. Hawes Mechanical Television Archive by James T. Hawes, AA9DT Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits, ...

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Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits, Part 7 ...

For low-voltage circuits, below about 2 volts, change the power voltage to 3 volts. There are two junctions in a silicon transistor. Each one requires 0.7 volt. Add in voltage drops across collector and emitter resistors, and you'll need at least 2 volts, and preferably 3 volts.

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Electronics Projects Circuits - Germanium Transistor Amplifier ...

2016/04/22 · Electronics Projects, Germanium Transistor Amplifier Circuit " audio amplifier circuits, transistor amplifier, " Date 2016/04/22 Once AD161-AD162 I had an experiment with pair. I still use almost every day. At first I didn’t like the ...

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Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits

Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits We are here for your questions anytime 24/7, welcome your consultation. Get Price Junction transistor type 2n35 ri ca 50 ppfd.Ceramic capacitors ...

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Vintage Radio and Electronics. Germanium Transistors

A site for the novice or established collector/restorer of Vintage Radio sets and Electronics.Valve (tube) and Transistor with information/projects and technical help . For the Radio Constructor we have an archive of Vintage Circuits

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Germanium and Silicon in Fuzz – What’s the Difference ...

2018/07/27 · The Germanium Transistor The germanium transistor was the first to be mass-produced and made commercially available to the public. This transistor was used extensively in radio technology, helping to create the first portable AM radios, as well as the first car radios.

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Build this 8 Transistor Stereo Amplifier

In 1969, an 8 Transistor Stereo Amplifier kit was released but withdrawn in 1972. The reasons are unclear, but I suspect the germanium "matched pair" transistors were expensive and hard to source. In addition, the amplifier kit

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Easy Two Transistor Projects for School Students ...

2020/05/25 · 1) Transistor Multivibrator Circuit It's basically an oscillator circuit which produces alternate ON OFF pulses across its two transistor collectors. The diagram above depicts the design of a standard transistor astable multivibrator using just two transistors, which in any manner can be implemented for developing various fun projects.

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Substituting Silicon transistors for Germanium | All About Circuits

2017/08/07 · Yes the germanium transistors have some undesirable qualities, but they can allow starting a boost converter even at 0.5 volts. Once the converter starts, the germanium transistor is no longer needed so it goes back to working on

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Transistor Circuit Handbook for the Hobbyist: 30 Useful ...

Title Transistor Circuit Handbook for the Hobbyist: 30 Useful Battery-Powered Transistor Circuits Author Sylvania Electric Products, Inc. Subject transistors Keywords electronics, transistor…

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Fusion 360 Blog - Transistors 101: A Detailed Introduction on ...

2020/12/02 · What does a transistor’s internal structure look like? Transistors are made of a semiconductor material such as silicon, germanium, and others. The addition of impurities into semiconductor wafers allows transistor manufacturers to create n-type and p-type regions.

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Bones Hi - Fi: Germanium Transistor Based Audio Power ...

2013/05/10 · I've heard do-it-yourself single-ended germanium transistor based audio power amps during the mid 1990s and to my ears, they sound as if they have almost unlimited slew rate - as in 5-million volts per microsecond. Especially

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14. Transistor Characteristics Lab

14. Transistor Characteristics Lab Introduction Transistors are the active component in various devices like amplifiers and oscillators. They are called active devices since transistor…

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Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) theory - All About Circuits

2020/06/29 · It is impossible to understand the function of many transistor circuits without a firm grasp on which signal exerts control over which other signal in a circuit. Question 8 The “beta” ratio (β) of a bipolar junction transistor, sometimes alternatively referred to …

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Transistor Manual Third Edition ECG-315 - VTDA

The meltback method of transistor construction starts off with a bar of germanium about 10 x 10 100 mils. The end of the bar is melted and allowed to refreeze very

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ElectroSmash - You can Build the Perfect Germanium Fuzz Face

The first FF's manufactured in the UK used the AC128, a 45-165 Hfe European germanium PNP transistor, cheap/common at that time (later on replaced by the Newmarket NKT275). After this early germanium years , the production switched to the modern, temperature independent, and more stable silicon transistors like the BC108C, BC109C, and BC209C.

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Germanium Transistors - Page 1 - Small Bear Electronics

Germanium Power Germanium Signal Nanolog Devices Schottky Silicon Power Silicon Signal Zeners Electro-Harmonix & Sovtek Spares Enclosures "125-B"-Size "A"- and "LB"-Sizes "B"-Size, "G"- …

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☑ Germanium Transistor Leakage

Germanium Transistor Leakage April 13, 2018 Get link Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Other Apps Testing Germanium Transistors Details Hackaday Io ...

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Push-Pull Amplifier Circuit - Class A, B & AB Amplifier Circuits

2020/05/02 · It is also known as Push-Pull Amplifier and in TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) circuits, it is called “‘Totem Pole Output” based on transistors , diodes and resistors. A servo amplifiers is used widely because of a special trait that lets them transfer energy to …

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TRANSISTOR CLIPPING CIRCUITS

TRANSISTOR CLIPPING CIRCUITS In this article, the transistor clipping circuits is explained in detail along with the circuit diagrams and waveforms. The transistor clipper circuit waveform for ramp and sinusoidal input is given below. ...

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Transistors - Engineering and Technology History Wiki

2017/04/12 · The inventors of the point-contact germanium transistor were John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain, who worked under William Shockley, at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey. In 1939, Brattain and Shockley began to work together on an electron tube replacement made of the chemical element germanium, a semiconductor .

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Does anyone have spice models for germanium transistors ...

2017/06/16 · Good idea about the Russians for germanium transistor data. I will check that out. I always get the Wiki and Yahoo forums confused. I will try the Yahoo forum as well. Like Reply bertus Joined Apr 5, 2008 21,059 Jun 14, 2017 #6 ...

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Articles › Transistors in Vintage Radios

The alloy-diffused AF114, AF115, AF116 and AF117 transistors were introduced in the early 1960s. There is an AF118, but this is not found in transistor radios - it's a high voltage transistor intended for use in video circuits

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Radio Frequency Schematics - Radio and Electronic Circuits ...

All circuits are listed alphabetically on the Circuit Index page and in date order on the update page. All contributors are listed on the credits page. If you have problems try my help page first. Most circuits on this site use SI Notation.

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Germanium Alloy Junction Vintage Transistors and Circuits ...

The first transistor type was known as point contact, which consisted of a small piece of germanium in contact with two sharp metal points. Rapid improvements were made to this technology and by the late 1950s the germanium alloy junction transistor type was the most common, manufactured by such companies as Raytheon, GE, RCA, Sylvania.

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Germanium Transistor Circuits

Germanium transistor circuits. Silicon devices hardly leak at all. Germanium devices often leak enough that they can bias themselves. A germanium type such as the oa90 that you can get from many electronics stores including

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Germanium outperforms silicon in energy efficient transistors ...

2020/12/31 · Germanium outperforms silicon in energy efficient transistors with n- und p- conduction Date: February 3, 2017 Source: Technische Universität Dresden Summary: An …

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Substitution of old germanium transistors in radio circuits ...

2013/07/13 · The original transistor would be a PNP germanium type (AEI - TR1A). I think an RF type, or at least designated that I believe (by Tri-ang). Original battery voltage was 9V. If you were to substitute that germanium PNP transistor with a modern PNP silicon transistor, what transistor would you...

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Germanium Diode Pictures

Germanium is used in light emitting diodes and semiconductors just like silicon above it. A diode is a semiconducting device that allows current to flow in one direction but not the other. Germanium diodes need roughly 02v across it in order to conduct current.

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Bipolar Junction Transistors - Learn About Electronics

Fig 3.2.1 Germanium Alloy Diffused Transistor Fig 3.2.2 Multi Layer Construction of a Silicon Planar Transistor. www.learnabout-electronics.org Semiconductors Module 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors many separate stepstop of ...

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The Chemistry of Semiconductor Integrated Circuit

Brattain s 1947 point- contact transistor (a piece of gold foil, a plastic triangle and a slice of germanium, ~ 0.5 inches long) functioned as a semiconducting amplifier. Ralph Bown of Bell Labs announced the invention: We have

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AC128 GERMANIUM TRANSISTOR | Transistors, Vintage ...

2018/01/27 · Jan 27, 2018 - Premium Quality, "New-Old-Stock" AC128. Germ...

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The BJT Transistor Theory - PCB Heaven

threshold is called Base-Emitter voltage VBE and depends on the material that the transistor is made of. Germanium (Ge) was originally used to make transistors, and later Silicon (Si) was used. For Germanium, this voltage is0.3 o

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15. Transistor Amplifier Design and Measurement

15. Transistor Amplifier Design and Measurement Introduction The previous module was devoted to measuring the characteristics of a transistor. In particular, you measured the amplification parameter b=Ic ’Ib (b is also known as hfe on your digital multimeter.) ...

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Transistor Basics | DigiKey

2017/12/21 · Amazingly, the first operational Transistor was declared 70 years ago, on December, 23 1947! 1 The Transistor is probably one of the most revolutionary components ever invented. It led the way for the creation of

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